List of cube solving robots

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Constructing a robot capable of solving a Rubik's cube "on its own" has been a popular challenge for engineers, with many different designs over the years.

Cube solving robots

"Full solve time" is the average solving time including inspection.

Name Creator Year Puzzle(s) Method Full solve time Mechanism Videos Notes
Robbie Rubik Daniel Talken, Douglas Rhode, Robert Sum 1982 3x3x3 ? ~12 minutes No cameras. Scrambled cube state is typed into a computer. Cube is repeatedly flipped and the top layer turned with stepping solenoids. - Made by 3 students at the University of Illinois. (Newspaper articles: 1, 2, 3.) Ideal Rubik's Cube Newsletter Vol. 1 No. 2 (Aug 1982).
Cubot Robert Dyer et al. 1982 3x3x3 ? ~4 minutes Uses cameras (a "color vision system"). Two orthogonal manipulators grip the cube edges. - Made by a team of ~20 people at Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratories. (1983 Paper). Cf. this Newspaper article. Solved "any scrambled Rubik's Cube in less than four minutes": [1].
Tico and Teco Rodrigo de Almeida Siqueira 1995 3x3x3 ? ? 2 robotic arms Created at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The two robots "Tico and Teco" were also given the English names "Chip and Dale". (Original announcement on Cube Lovers: [2].) Website with videos: [3].
Deep Cube Evan Gates 2004 3x3x3 Kociemba ~10 seconds 6 arms (6DOF) YouTube video Story by Evan Gates

No working cameras, kept internal state.

RuBot Pete Redmond (from Dublin, Ireland) 2006 3x3x3 Two perpendicular arms (4 DOF) RuBot Prototype RuBot II Demonstration
LEGO RUBIK UTOPIA Daniele Benedettelli 2007 3x3x3 Kociemba ~50 seconds LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT robot (3 DOF), solution found on a laptop connected via USB YouTube Video Danny's website First LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT robot to solve a Rubik's cube
ARM Powered LEGO/Nokia 4x4x4 Rubik's Cube Solver David Gilday (ARM Principal Engineer) 2009 4x4x4 creator's own table driven algorithm 19min for 4x4x4 Symbian phone (with Java app) controlling LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT y-turntable, hinged hold/lift and x-spin (3 DOF) Video of 4x4x4 solve
CubeStormer Mike Dobson 2010 3x3x3 Kociemba ? LEGO MINDSTORMS RCX, Four orthogonal turning arms (8 DOF) YouTube Video
Rowan University Cube Solving Machine (?) Zach Grady and Joe Ridgeway (at Rowan University) 2010 3x3x3 ? ~15 seconds PLC and aluminum parts, cube turning on a corner base and an extending "stepper" (3 DOF) Thread Demonstration Interview
ARM Speedcuber David Gilday (ARM Principal Engineer) 2010 3x3x3 creator's own 2-phase algorithm 15s ("for a good solve") Android phone (native app in C++), LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT, Four arms (6 DOF) Video of Demonstration at ARM Techcon 2010 ARM Powered LEGO/Nokia 4x4x4 Rubik's Cube Solver
ARM Powered Android LEGO MultiCuber 777 David Gilday (ARM Principal Engineer) 2010 7x7x7 creator's own generic table driven algorithm capable of solving any cube size 40min for a 7x7x7 Android phone (Java app), LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT, Vertical arm with x pivot and y-rotating cage. (3 DOF) Video of a 7x7x7 Solve Blog Post by David
ARM Powered Android Megaminxer David Gilday (ARM Principal Engineer) 2010 Megaminx creator's own table driven algorithm 8 min Android phone (Java app), LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT, Vertical arm with x pivot, y-spin and y-rotating cage. (3 DOF) Video of Megaminx solve Blog Post by David
Robot Ruby David Bain, Richard Bain, Daniel Purvis, Jarrod Boyes, Miriam Parkinson and Jonathan Goldwasser (Swinburne University of Technology) 2011 3x3x3 Kociemba ~10s (including inspection) Two perpendicular arms (4 DOF) Article on the Swinburne Website

Article from The Age

CubeStormer II Mike Dobson and David Gilday 2011 3x3x3 David Gilday's two-phase algorithm (unofficial) best 4.762s, average ~5.9s (200 solves) LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT and Samsung GALAXY S II smartphone. Four orthogonal turning arms (8 DOF) CubeStormer II (YouTube video) CubeStormer II - Seeing is Believing (YouTube video) This is AMAZING! The CubeStormer ll breaks world record at ARM TechCon 2011 (YouTube video) CubeStormer II - David Gilday & Mike Dobson - ARM TechCon 2011 (YouTube video) Solving the Rubik's Cube - ARM TechCon 2011 - David Gilday talks with Tomas Rokicki (YouTube video)

Guinness World Record: 5.270s set on 11th Nov 2011 at (Article and video)

MindCuber David Gilday 2011 3x3x3 and Void Cube 9 stage table driven 1m55s (2m30s with published software) constructed from just a single LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT 2.0 kit. One pull/push tilt arm and turntable (2?DOF) MindCuber (YouTube video) ARM Powered® MindCuber solves Void Cube (YouTube video) MindCuber bonus model instructions and software on LEGO MINDSTORMS site MindCuber home page
MicroCuber David Gilday 2012 Microbic (12mm 3x3x3) 5 stage table driven 7 mins Sony Xperia Mini smartphone, Android App. and LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT mechanics. Push/push, hold and turntable (3 DOF?) MicroCuber (YouTube video)
High Frequency Twister Jay Flatland and Paul Rose 2016 3x3x3 (with custom drilled center holes) Kociemba 1.0xx seconds World's Fastest Rubik's Cube Solving Robot (Jay Flatland)
? Infineon 2016 3x3x3 Kociemba 0.637 seconds 6 arms, created to show off an Infineon AURIX™ that powers it 0.637 seconds - a new Rubik's Cube machine world record!
? Human Controller 2017 3x3x3 CFOP - Self-solving (motors embedded in the sides) Rubik's Cube Robot - self solving
? Ben Katz and Jared Di Carlo 2018 3x3x3 Kociemba (min2phase) 0.38 seconds Blog posts: Ben and Jared 0.38 Second Rubik's Cube Solve
? xdpcz 2018 4x4x4 Reduction 35.67 seconds Post 目前世界最快的四阶解魔方机器