I do not know if I am categorizing this in the right area, so if any moderator sees this and move it, then that is okay with me
1. They both are timed.
A no brainer, but to see just who is faster at running, you need a sort of system to see who is faster. You have www.athletic.net for the running, and www.worldcubeassociation.org for cubing.
2. They both have a goal.
Also a no-brainer, people need to be able to run or cube in a time they hope to achieve. Like in the mile, I want to beat 5:30, or in cubing, I want to get a sub-10 solve at my next competition.
3. They both use mental toughness.
This is not so obvious in cubing, but you must have high levels of concentration when solving or running. You have to keep the flow. On wrong move and the flow is disturbed.
4. The pros use techniques during practice to perform well during intense competition.
Max and Tymon in cubing, and the pro runners cross country/track.
5. Both activities have multiple different events that are very different from each other and require different skill sets. It’s very hard to be good at the 200, the 5k, discus, and pole vault, just like it’s hard to be good at 4x4, pyraminx, 3BLD, and FMC. (Thanks, Ben! I don't know how I missed this one!)
6. Mental toughness exists in track field for long distance running (5k,10k marathon). This form of toughness is also required for MBLD event which required unwavering focus for one complete hour and very less mistakes, M2 U2 M U M' U2 M U' M . (Thanks, @abunickabhi! I forgot this one, so you bringing this up allows me to add it for others to see.
If I missed anything, add it below.